+65 (0) 6679 6217 info@anergy.com

Project Guide

When developing a project there are a number of things that need to be assessed to make the project work

While Anergy are able to construct the plant there are a number of things required for a project to successfully get off the ground. To assist with this, Anergy has developed this information guide so that developers are able to put together all the elements of a successful project.

Feedstock

One of the most important steps in applying Anergy High Temperature Pyrolysis is a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the feed material. The properties of biomass feedstocks can vary significantly, meaning it is highly beneficial to clearly define the particular material for your application. Anergy’s High Temperature Pyrolysis technology is highly flexible and able to process a wide variety of feedstock material, so a clear material characterisation allows the process to be tailored to your feedstock.

Overview

Feedstock material is typically characterised by its chemical and physical properties, commonly comprising of those listed. Materials handling of the feedstock and the solid pyrolysis products is directed by the physical properties of the material, including how to introduce the material to the pyrolysis process. The chemical properties of the material directly influence the pyrolysis process, including the thermal process requirements and the nature of the pyrolysis products.

Physical Properties

 

 

Bulk and Dry Solid Densities

 

Particle Size Distribution

 

Form and Flowability

 

Amount of Free Moisture

Chemical Properties

 

 

 

 Combustion Characteristics, including heating value

 

 

 

Composition: Proximate and Ultimate

 

The composition of the feedstock is usually reported as proximate and ultimate analyses.

Proximate Analysis

The proximate analysis provides the feedstock composition based on its pyrolysis characteristics, reported as mass fractions of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash. The analysis is determined as follows.

 

Moisture

 Moisture: Material is dried in an oven at 120 to 150°C, driving off any moisture as steam.

Volatiles 

Volatiles: Material is heated to temperatures on the order of 500 to 900°C in an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen. Organic species volatilise and are removed from the sample.

Fixed Carbon

Fixed Carbon: The remaining solid material is heated in excess air or oxygen, causing combustion of the remaining carbon material to carbon dioxide.

 

 

 Ash

 Ash: The remaining solid material, typically comprising silica and inorganic oxides.

 

Different biomass materials can have widely differing proximate compositions. As shown on the ternary diagram, Anergy’s High Temperature Pyrolysis process can comfortably handle a vast array of different materials. 

Ultimate Analysis

The ultimate analysis reports the biomass composition based on the individual elements it contains. The ash fraction of the material can also be represented as an ultimate analysis. The ultimate analysis will typically detail the composition of the major elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) and usually minor components (silicon, chlorine, sulphur).

Business Case

In order to finance a project, it needs to have a viable business case. In order to build a successful business case a clear understanding of all of the revenue streams and operating costs and to understand how this relates to the capital cost of the project. 

Revenues

Depending on the type of plant you are building there are a number of potential revenue streams from an Anergy plant:


Electricity

Electrical Generation from the generators.


Gate Fees

A fee paid to take delivery of a waste product.


Char/Biochar

Depending on the feedstock there may be a value in the char product produced as a by-product of the HTP process.


Activated

Certain chars can be post-treated in order to manufacture an activated carbon which has many commercial applications.

 


Heat/Steam

Some industrial consumers may be willing to pay for heat collected from the exhaust of the engines or kilns.


Government Incentives

In certain jurisdictions then extra payments can be received from the government for either the production of renewable energy or from the reduction of waste.

 

Operating Costs

There a several areas of potential cost in the operation of an Anergy plant. Not all of them will always apply but each should be understood and assessed to properly develop the business model:


Labour

The biggest cost of running an Anergy HTP plant is the man-power to operate it. Operating hours and plant configuration can dictate the number of people required for this.


Parasitic Load

The plant requires some of the electricity that it produces in order to run the plant. This needs to be subtracted from the gross power output.


Fuel

While Anergy HTP plants normally run off their own gas they do require a fuel for start-up. This fuel is typically diesel, natural gas or LPG but alternative fuels can be used as well.


Maintenance & Spare Parts

All plants require spare parts and specialised service in order to keep operating.

 

Transportation

Cost of transporting feed to the site and char away from the site.


Consumables

All plants use certain quantities of consumables and these need to be assessed and valued.


Feedstock

Some feedstocks such as virgin biomass need to be purchased.

 

Water Purchase/Disposal

Depending on the plant set-up the plant could be a net user or consumer of water. Excess water needs to be treated and disposed of while a water shortage will need to be sourced.

 


Char Disposal

In some cases, where there is no secondary market for the char then it will need to be disposed of to landfill.

 

Compliance

Depending on the jurisdiction and operating permits there will be certain reporting requirements to legislative bodies. These carry certain costs and will need to be maintained.

 

Technology

There are many technology options available given a particular site, feedstock, jurisdiction and environment. Anergy HTP is one of the most flexible options available and it suits many sites and locations.

Additionally, however, Anergy is also able to provide Anaerobic Digestion for projects with a suitable environment and feedstock. Also, there are a number of different configurations of Anergy plants to handle various types of feeds and also to generate different products.

The Anergy Activation module can be added to suitable plants which can upgrade the char product produced to commercially saleable activated carbon.

Also, Anergy plants can be manufactured as containerised or fixed plant options depending on the needs of the location, feedstock and the scale of the plant.

Our applications engineers can work with you to recommend the best configuration for your plant given your plant profile and your budget.

Site

Clearly, in order to develop an Anergy HTP project you need to have somewhere to put it. When selecting a site there are a few key requirements to keep into account:

  • Zoning: The area is suitably zoned for the correct usage
  • Access to Feedstock: The site is close to the feedstock source and doesn’t incur extra transportations costs.
  • Access to Fuel: Is there an available fuel source for start-up purposes?
  • Proximity to Residential: How close are the nearest residential neighbours? Are they likely to object to the plant being installed?
  • Proximity to Electrical Consumer: After the electrical energy is produced it needs to be either put into the grid or consumed directly. Long cable runs can be very expensive and will increase transmission losses
  • Site Condition: Is the site flat and adequately drained? What level of fill, earthworks and compaction will be required before it is ready for construction?
  • Site Access: Are roads available to properly access the site for construction and operational purposes?

Permitting

One of the great challenges in many locations to developing projects is the need for local planning and environmental permits. While the plant itself is quite benign there may be substantial work to prove this to government bodies before the plant is allowed to progress.

Environmental analysis may need to be carried out taking into account:

  • Expected Air Emissions
  • Emissions Monitoring
  • Expected Noise Levels
  • Waste Water treatment and disposal
  • Water Consumption
  • Potential for dust emissions
  • Odour

Additionally, there may be processes required before the plant is able to be connected to a centralised grid which can involve a level of design.

These constraints and processes are very much driven by the local jurisdiction. Anergy is happy to provide generic information on these considerations. For more involved processes and depending on the data required then Anergy can be employed to give the technical components required for these areas of analysis. Typically, this should be done in conjunction with a local consultant to the project who is familiar with the particulars of the permitting.